An Early Dictionary of Food

In 1830, Richard Dolby, cook at the Thatched House Tavern in London, wrote something “never hitherto attempted.” One might spend quite a bit of time pondering what Dolby produced that, in his own words, seemed so groundbreaking in the culinary world. It wasn’t a recipe/cook book (well, not exactly). It wasn’t an encyclopedia of food history (well, not exactly). And it wasn’t a guidebook for young housewives (well, not exactly). It was, however, The Cook’s Dictionary and House-Keeper’s Directory: A New Family Manual of Cookery and Confectionery, on a Plan of Ready Reference Never Hitherto Attempted.

Title page
Title page

From a historical perspective, we can’t speak to the accuracy of his claim that such a book was never attempted. For all we know, a work was finished, but never published. However, it’s entirely possible a work like Dolby’s was never published before. There certainly were food encyclopedias, guidebooks and household management books, and there was at least one botanical/medical/agricultural dictionary that pre-date 1830. Still, Dolby’s method of blending information about foods along with recipes in a dictionary-like structure seems pretty unique for its day. And it meets its goal of simplicity, as the introduction suggests:

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The meat of the book (pun intended, of course!) is an alphabetical listing of foods, food groups (classifications of recipes, rather than what we might think of as contemporary food groups), and recipes that are representative of foods. Even when an entry blends all three, it is provided as a straight narrative, recipe included, which is characteristic of many pre-20th century cookbooks.

Nor does Dolby abandon his readers after he finishes the “Zs.” His leaves us with two helpful additions: One, a short list of terms used throughout the book, and two, a calendar year list of when certain foods are available in season. While the latter may not be accurate today, nor overly helpful outside the UK, where growing seasons may differ, it’s easy to see how they could be useful to readers in 1830.

You can find the full text of Dolby’s dictionary online here. If you’re curious to see what he included, it’s very much worth the look. Plus, it’s in alphabetical order, so there’s no difficulty in finding an ingredient!

Food Blog Round-Up

It’s your loyal archivist/blogger Kira here. I’m out of the office for part of the week, so I’m going to cheat on this week’s post.  Rather than feature an item from the collection (don’t worry, we’ll be back to normal next week!), I thought I’d do a quick blog round-up.  Because when I’m not working or writing blog posts, I’m reading them. Some blogs I follow are news related, some culture related, and some are just plain fun. There are lots of individuals interested in food culture and history who find creative ways to blog on the internet. So, if you’re looking for a one-time read, or a new blog to follow, here are a few from my feed reader you might want to check out:

  • NPR’s food blog, The Salt, mixes food news, food culture, and usually, on Mondays, some pretty hilarious mockery of sandwiches (I can relate!).
  • Interested in Southern food culture? The Southern Foodways Alliance blog focuses on food projects, people, trends, and events.
  • We aren’t the only library with a food blog either! La Cocina Historica focuses on the Mexican Cookbook Collection at the University of Texas at San Antonio.
  • Food as a Lens is the work of a history/foodways professor who writes about food traditions from around the country.
  • 1972: The Retro WW Experiment. Retro Mimi recreates 1970s Weight Watchers recipes in her own kitchen and shares her adventures along the way. Some of what she makes might look VERY familiar to recipes you’ve seen here!
  • The Mid-Century Menu. Blogger Retro Ruth has a project that makes me wish for more time in the day! Each Wednesday, she posts her experiences making a mid-20th century recipe at home. On Fridays, she’s now testing out vintage cocktail recipes, too.

These are just a few examples. There are many, many more food blogs out there and you can find them with the click of a mouse. If you follow a food blog you think I should know about, leave a note in the comments below! I’m always on the lookout for a new read.

Happy reading!

From Root to Table: Raw Foods in the Early 20th Century

This week, we’re featuring Uncooked Foods & How to Use Them: A Treatise on How to Get the Highest Form of Animal Energy from Food: With Recipes for Preparation, Healthful Combinations and Menus by Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Christian. This particular volume is a recent addition to Special Collections. Published in 1904, it’s actually the 5th edition, so this husband and wife team seemed to be on a roll…

Eugene Christian was the more prolific of the pair, authoring a variety of books on food, diet, nutrition, and health in general between 1900-1930. His wife co-authored a several books with him, however. Uncooked Foods & How to Use Them features a little bit of everything: directions on how and what to eat, how to prepare foods (very little!), sample recipes, sample meal plans, and some about why the idea of eating raw foods was important to the authors. For Special Collections, this piece is a great new addition. While we have a number of volumes on vegetarianism in the 19th and 20th centuries, this is the first book we have on raw foods and the raw foods movement. (Now, we’ll be on the lookout for more!)

You’ll notice that there are a few cooked/prepared foods in the book, though they seem to be carefully chosen and few and far between. The section on soup, for example, is prefaced by the statement that: “We give here a few recipes for soups only because the soup habit is so firmly fixed in the mind of the housewife and the epicure that they can hardly conceive of a decent dinner without them. All soups may be warmed sufficiently to serve hot without cooking.” All but one of the few meat or fish dishes are smoked or dried. The others are all raw, including a beef tartare recipe.

So whether you’re hankering for egg-nog with fruit juice, raw carrot and turnips with (or without) salad dressing, or prune pie, this book could be for you. You’ll just have to come by and see. Until then, happy eating!

Women’s History Month Profiles, Part 3: Marion Harland (1830-1922) and Christine Terhune Herrick (1859-1944)

This week, our Women’s History Month feature includes two women, a mother and daughter with LOTS to say on the topic of cooking and managing the home. Each was an author in her own right, though, as we’ll see, their efforts resulted in at least one collaboration.

Mary Virginia Hawes (later, Terhune) was born in Virginia in 1830. Writing under a series of pen names, she published articles beginning at age 14. Eventually, she adopted Marion Harland as her author identity. She married a preacher, Edward Terhune, a Presbyterian minister, and they had six children, three of whom survived infancy (and who all became writers!). For nearly the first twenty years of her writing career, she wrote novels and fiction, primarily aimed at women. In the 1870s, she added to her repertoire and completed a book on household management, full of recipes and hints. It was the first edition of Common Sense in the Household: A Manual of Practical Housewifery. Although she never gave up writing fiction, and even added some non-fiction to her bibliography, from the 1870s to the early 1900s, her focus seemed to have shifted to cookery and domestic guides in cookbook and narrative styles. She died in 1922, at the age of 91, leaving behind a legacy of fiction, non-fiction, articles, household advice, recipes, and more.

Our holdings in Special Collections are by no means complete. Marion Harland wrote on culinary, literary, and historical topics, as well as travel and fiction. We have half a dozen of her culinary and domestic related books, which represent only a small percentage her catalog of works. The gallery below contains scans from selected University Libraries’ holdings (in chronological order).

For more about Mary Terhune, you can check out her obituary in the New York Times; her autobiography online, and the Encyclopedia Virginia article about her.

Christine Terhune (later Herrick), was born in 1859, after her parents had relocated to New Jersey for her father’s work. Following an extensive education in the US and in Europe during family life abroad, she taught private school briefly. In 1884, she married James Herrick, a newspaper editor, in Springfield, Massachusetts. She began writing articles for newspapers and ladies journals. By 1888, her first book on household management was published (Housekeeping Made Easy) and she became quite successful. After her husband’s death in 1893, she wrote to support her family while she raised two young sons. In 1905, she edited a set of books, Consolidated Library of Modern Cooking and Household Recipes that included some her mother’s writings. By the time of her death in 1944, she had published more than 25 books on raising children, living on a budget, manuals for servants and housewives, cooking, and housekeeping in general.

Currently, Special Collections includes only four of Herrick’s books (don’t worry, we’re always on the look out for more!), highlighted in the gallery below.

For more on Christine Terhune Herrick, you can read about the entry for her in the Notable American Women, 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary, Volume 2 online.

Together, mother and daughter wrote more than 50 publications, the majority of which related to culinary history and domestic life. Their books, including editions and reprints, provided housewives, mothers, servants, and families with advice for almost 60 years. Clearly, they were an influential force to be reckoned with in the domestic sphere! (And one with ties to Virginia food and household history, too!)

A complete list of Marion Harland’s publications at the Virginia Tech University Libraries is available here. A list of Christine Terhune Herrick’s publications at the University Libraries (all of which are in Special Collections) is available here. If want to come visit and see more, be sure to check out both lists.

And if you can’t visit, you can still see more! Previous efforts to digitize some of the culinary history holdings in Special Collections resulted in five of Harland’s and two of Herrick’s publications being scanned. You can read, save, and download the pdf versions here.

Next week, we may return to the Boston Cooking School to talk about author and educator, Mrs. D. A. Lincoln (aka Mary Johnson Bailey Lincoln), or we may look at the work of Janet McKenzie Hill–author, culinary reformer, and food scientist. (With only one week left in Women’s History Month, it’s hard to decide!) You’ll just have to come back and see.

Until then, take some of Marion Harland’s advice: “Practice, and practice alone, will teach you certain essentials.” This week, cook something you’ve practiced and love. Those essentials will never let you down…

Cocktails at the Savoy

In 1930, the United States was still subject to Prohibition (though the more creative, daring, or rebellious may not have felt quite so burdened). More than a few American bartenders, cocktail barmen, and mixologists (yes, this was a word then and even as early as the 1850s!) took off for more inviting locales, including Harry Craddock, who left for England in 1920. He quickly settled at the American Bar in the Savoy Hotel, London. In 1930, he published The Savoy Cocktail Book, filled with original and compiled recipes. (The book also includes an extensive section on wines, but there is enough there for another post!)

There are a lot of things I (archivist/blogger/foodie/amateur cocktail slinger Kira) like about cocktails: the entertainment value, the names (which usually have a whole other explanation), and wondering just how a list of ingredients ends up tasting like what is does (often something quite surprising). Some of them even taste good! The Savoy Cocktail Book has some wonderful examples of all these things.

Example #1, The Entertaining Cocktail: The “Blue Blazer“*

The Blue Blazer was created by famed bartender, Jerry Thomas, somewhere in the mid-1850s. More than “just” a cocktail man, Thomas was an entertainer. He reportedly developed the drink while working at a bar in San Francisco. While the drink itself (scotch, water, a little sugar, and a piece of lemon peel–only one ingredient away from a hot whisky punch) isn’t all that exciting, watching a man virtually juggle blue flame–that’s a show! “If well done, this will have the appearance of a continued stream of liquid fire.

Example #2, The Strange Name: The Scoff-Law Cocktail

In January 1924, while Prohibition was at its height in the US, a Boston newspaper ran a contest: They asked readers to come up a word to describe those malcontents who continued to produce alcohol and imbibe, despite the law. Interestingly enough, two separate individuals submitted the same contest-winning word, beating more than 25, 000 other entries, and sharing the $200 prize. The winning word? “Scofflaw.” Not to be outdone, Harry Craddock, now four years into his London sojourn, invented the Scoff-Law Cocktail, a rather tasty blend of rye, vermouth, lemon juice, grenadine, and orange bitters. And promptly turning the temperance movement’s own word against it.

A few other examples of intriguing, puzzling, and all around hilarious cocktails include: The Rattlesnake (which Craddock notes “will either cure Rattlesnake bite, or kill Rattlesnakes, or make you see them”), the Moonraker (long before James Bond), the Jabberwock (Lewis Carroll-inspired), the Tom and Jerry (reportedly named by Jerry Thomas for his pet mice…which were named after Thomas himself), and Satan’s Whiskers (there are two recipes, one each for “straight” and “curled”). And this is just Craddock’s book!

Example #3, The Unexpected Flavor Dominator: The Monkey Gland

At first glance, this belongs under Example #2 with all the other bizarre names. If you said as much to me, you’d be right. But there’s something else about the Monkey Gland (no, not monkeys!) and that’s the taste. It’s a cocktail that still appears in modern cocktail guides, so someone must still drink them…though who actually orders one in a bar, I don’t know. This is a cocktail with four simple ingredients: gin, orange juice, grenadine, and a splash of absinthe (or a modern substitute). With  almost 3 ounces of other flavors, a likely assumption might be sweet orange with a juniper finish. Instead, this is a cocktail dominated by licorice from that sneaky little splash of absinthe. **

The second part of Part I includes recipes for classic early cocktails: interrelated families of fizzes, coolers, rickeys, daisies, fixes, smashes, cobblers, slings, flips, collinses, and sours. The small differences between some of these (whether or not the citrus peel stays in the glass, whether you add club soda or no, and just how much sweet or sour is added) account for the varied names. Several as single serving versions of the punches that were rapidly going out of style (though Craddock has recipes for those, too!) by the 1920s, if not sooner.

That’s probably enough on cocktails at the Savoy for now. We’ll have more on the Prohibition culture and cocktails on both sides of the pond in the future. There are plenty more strangely named drinks yet to be tasted…Cheers!

*Don’t try this drink at home. No, really. Find a professional!

**It really is. I made this on a whim recently, since I had some absenthe (a modern absinthe liquor) on hand. The licorice is far from subtle.

Sandwiches, Part 2: Return of Frosted Sandwich

Sometimes there is a food so odd, so unique, and oft-times unsettling, it creeps back up when you least expect it. And just to keep you on your toes, it changes ever so slightly. Lately, it seems to be the “frosted sandwich” (see its first appearance here). To be fair, 500 Tasty Sandwiches, edited by the director of the Culinary Arts Institute during the 1940s and 1950s, Ruth Berolzheimer, includes so much more than the merely frosted. This 1941 gem contains sandwiches that were frosted, toasted, grilled, baked, fried, filled, rolled, cut, shaped, and layered in some very creative ways.

The book also contains recipes for fancy breads, fillings, and spreads, all with an emphasis on both economy and entertaining: “Dainty colorful sandwiches such as these guarantee the success of any tea or bridge party” (26). Of course, this includes suggestions like “egg and catchup,” “peanut-butter and pickle,” and “salmon and nut.” Then there are the complex patterns and shapes to be admired: the checkerboard, the gangplank, and the treasure chest, the last of which is essentially a hollowed bread loaf refilled with sandwiches made from the center slices, then covered with the top. While modern taste buds may not like the choice of fillings, the loaf or treasure chest style does lend itself to a certain portability for picnics, travel, and feeding crowds.

It’s when we get to frosting these sandwiches (with cream cheese, rather than the whipped mayonnaise we’ve seen previously) that things start to go wrong. Besides whole frosted loaves, 500 Tasty Sandwiches brings us something new: individual sized servings. Frosted to look like cakes rounds. Or rectangles.

 And the shapes don’t end there! This cookbook provides with plenty of interesting examples of structural ingenuity, as the pyramid and skyscraper recipes above indicate. It’s the ultimate opportunity to play with your food and to get creative. There are endless combinations of fillings and layers, begging to be tried…you just may not want to eat it when you’re finished…

On a final note, this publication is part of a larger set by Consolidated Book Publishers, Inc., so we shouldn’t be entirely surprised by its contents. The series includes such Special Collections favorites (a few of which have appeared on our blog before!) as:

  • 500 Delicious Salads, 1940
  • 300 Ways to Serve Eggs from Appetizers to Zabaglione, 1940
  • The Wartime Cook Book: 500 Recipes, Victory Substitutes and Economical Suggestions for Wartime Needs, 1942 (an interesting comparison to this publication, which was likely published just before the war began–availability changed quickly!)
  • 250 Ways to Serve Fresh Vegetables, 1950
  • 300 Healthful Dairy Dishes, 1952

…and the list goes on. Don’t believe me? Visit the library’s catalog, Addison, and search “Berolzheimer, Ruth” as author. You’ll be amazed (and amused) to see a range of titles and editions! Plus, you’ll likely see more of them here–we have far too much food history to share!

Cooking in Tidewater (It’s not like it sounds!)

Part of our goal with the History of Food & Drink Collection/Culinary History Collection is to document food history in Virginia. Among our nearly 3,500 publications are more than a few community, local, regional, and state cookbooks. Tidewater Virginia Cook Book: A Collection of Good, Reliable Recipes is an item we purchased for the collection in 2011. Published in 1891, it includes recipes contributed by women from all over the state for all kinds of foods, though the emphasis is on the Tidewater region of Virginia.

Although there is not necessarily a lot of visual appeal, at least not the recipe content, the book is certainly worth a glance or two! It pays special attention to fresh seafood, much more readily available than here in some other parts of the state (Blacksburg, I’m talking about you!): Pickled oysters, lobster, crabs, prawns, and fish.

One of the standouts here is definitely the abundance of terrapin and turtle recipes. On page 8, it’s “turtle soup;” on page 14, it’s two recipes for terrapin and one for “mock terrapin;” on page 7, it’s “mock-turtle soup;” and then, the topper, “Imitation mock turtle soup.” For those times when simply imitating a recipe isn’t enough, you can imitation the imitation! Mock turtle soup, by the way, comes from a calf’s head and ham base. Imitation mock turtle comes from black beans cooked with a meat joint, then mashed.

Not surprisingly, many of the included recipes are desserts: puddings, cakes (“pork cake,” anyone?), creams and custards, pies, and tarts. But there are also ices and ice creams, often a challenge with late 19th century technologies, and a “pepper candy” made with cayenne pepper. Pickles, preserves, jellies, and brandied fruits abound, and in a throw-back to our feature from two weeks ago, this recipe book includes “grape catsup.”

Whereas handwritten receipt books often shared cherished recipes within a family, the growing genre of community or other group cookbooks introduced these to a whole new audience. This particular volume came from the Reid Memorial Association of Norfolk, Virginia, though it contained recipes from ladies around the state. The idea of fundraising through cookbooks, especially by women, took off and our collection is full of similar publications dating from the late 19th century to the modern day. And, in addition to recipes, almost all of them have something else in common: advertising!

Questionable mock turtle/terrapin recipes aside, one of the other unique features of this volume is the ads in the back, several of which appear in the gallery above. General stores, food stores, florists, animal (sheep, beef, horses, mules–take your pick!) suppliers, insurance and real estate agents, appliance dealers (touting relatively new home technologies)…everyone got in on the action, even companies as far away as Oswego, NY! Although the baking powder wars had yet to start, we are greeted with “Government Tests” and “Royal Baking Powder” in large letters, suggesting a more reliable product than other companies. And, of course, targeting the women who could by buying there product over others.

See, as promised, nothing about cooking with laundry detergent (someone out there must have jumped to that conclusion first!), just some good old Virginia food history. We have a lot more to share with you, too. Be sure to keep following. Meanwhile, this archivist has weekend company coming and Mrs. Roper’s “Mock Terrapin” (made from calf’s liver and hard boiled eggs) might just be on the menu…

Recipes with a Dash of Hospitality

This week’s post includes a lot of recipes with canned or jarred goods, interesting color images, and a smattering of history. From Curtice Brothers Co. in Rochester, NY, the 1916 A Pictorial History of Hospitality with a Few Suggestions for Recipes contains illustrations of hospitality from different cultures throughout history.

There is a forward to the cookbook (not pictured) that includes a few statements worth sharing:

One always finds a fascination in history, be it the tale of a folk or the story of a food. In the world of foods Curtice Brothers Co., has a definite place…

…this booklet…will be found useful by helping to make the housewife’s daily routine less burdensome.

Pictorially portraying as it does by dainty illustrations (which are historically correct),–the history of, and changes in Hospitality,–this book will no doubt prove of added interest.

I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again, just as the pamphlet does: our food has a story. Every ingredient and every recipe. They aren’t always the most exciting stories, but stories nonetheless. A Pictorial History of Hospitality with a Few Suggestions for Recipes reminds us that related aspects of food culture all have stories, too.

One of the emerging themes of the History of Food & Drink Collection is the idea of efficiency and ease of food preparation. Along with the recipes, you’ll see meal planning hints and menu suggestions. The very fact that the company produced primarily canned and preserved food was one step in that process.

Lastly, this small publication introduces a topic that we have not spent much time talking about just yet: hospitality. We’ve talked about meal planning for dinners from the simple to the formal, table settings and decor, entertaining, and cocktails and canapes, but the concept of hospitality is closely tied to all these things. It is a motivating factor behind much of cooking and baking, as well as authoring household manuals and cookbooks. It’s the common social act of offering something to a guest who drops by or having something ready when you know company is coming. And it’s an easy excuse to splurge on the good wine and cheese.

As the illustrations above remind us, stereotypical as they may be, hospitality has roots at least as deep as our food’s history…so expect to see more about it in the future.

Catsup…or is it Ketchup?

Earlier this week, some of the folks at NPR had a post on “katchop,” made from ground anchovies. While their post has gone missing over the course of the week, it has continued to roll around in this archivist’s brain as inspiration. We have not talked yet much about sauces, or catsups/ketchups in particular. Which seems unfair to a condiment that has such a rich and complex history in food. Even in the modern age, we can’t agree on a single spelling!

Many of the historical cookbooks in our collection have one or more recipes for some variation of catsup/ketchup. More often that not, the recipes are included in sections on preservation and pickling. Ah, our old friend, pickling, has plenty more tricks!

Today, catsup/ketchup brings certain specific images to mind: bright red color, salty tang of tomato, fighting with a butter knife so the glass bottle will give up its goods. Here in America, with grilling season just getting started, it means hot dogs and hamburgers. And it goes perfect with fries. But, from a historical perspective, this delectable sauce has come a LONG way. It might just surprise you…

Richard Briggs’ The New Art of Cookery according to the present practice : being a complete guide to all housekeepers, on a plan entirely new : consisting of thirty-eight chapters … : with bills of fare for every month in the year, neatly and correctly printed, besides being another of those wonderfully long titles, comes from 1798. While this certainly is not the earlier receipt for ketchup, it is among the earliest  in our collection. Most important to note, there’s not a tomato in sight. Early catsups/ketchups were loosely defined as being liquors extracted from a food.

New Art of Cookery, 1798: Mushroom ketchup

In 1824, Mary Randolph’s The Virginia housewife : or, Methodical cook included a number of catsup recipes, which also appeared in the 1846 edition (below). First, there was oyster catsup. Basically, pounded, spiced, boiled oysters. This really wasn’t meant to be served as a condiment by itself, as we can see from Mrs. Randolph’s instructions. It was a way of adding  flavor and substance to other sauces. Although a gob of this on a hamburger might be an interesting culinary adventure!

The Virginia housewife : or, Methodical cook, 1846: Oyster Catsup

Mary Randolph’s book does contain something familiar, though: tomato catsup at last! Still no hints on serving, but this is certainly the ancestor of our modern condiment.  It is something you could serve on a meat dish or spice up another sauce. Again, the idea is preservation of a food in a creative and usable form.

The Virginia housewife : or, Methodical cook, 1846: Tomato Catsup

But Mrs. Randolph has at least one more catsup in her arsenal of recipes: walnut.  We have talked about pickled walnuts on the blog before. But why simply pickle them, when you can pickle them, juice them, and spice the extracted liquor! It probably adds a nice nutty, earthy flavor to sauces and cooking juices and meats or poultry.

The Virginia housewife : or, Methodical cook, 1846: Walnut Catsup

Later editions of The Williamsburg art of cookery; or, Accomplish’d gentlewoman’s companion: being a collection of upwards of five hundred of the most ancient & approv’d recipes in Virginia cookery … And also a table of favorite Williamsburg garden herbs, from the mid-1800;’s century reprinted Mary Randolph’s version of walnut catsup, too.

In some cases, we might wonder. why? Why did tomato catsup survive 170 years, when walnut, mushroom, and oyster versions didn’t? (Well, at least not in the same forms.) And then there are other cases why the “why” is not about survival, but why one might make something in the first place.

Enter Mrs. Beeton and her The book of household management : comprising information for the mistress … also sanitary, medical and legal memoranda with a history of the origin, properties, and use of all things connected with home life and comfort. The recipe below comes from the 1878 edition and should be left to speak for itself…

The book of household management : comprising information for the mistress … also sanitary, medical and legal memoranda with a history of the origin, properties, and use of all things connected with home life and comfort, 1878: Liver Ketchup

There isn’t much that can be said on the heels of a recipe like that, but it should give you something to think about if you’re grilling this summer. We talk a lot on the blog about how our food has a long history and that is always worth consideration. It never just appears on our plate. Tomato catsup/ketchup has had a couple hundred years of culinary history to develop to perfection. It stood on the backs of some predecessors and had the chance to learn from some failures.

And, hey, at least you are not dipping those fries in liver paste…

Pamphlets for Victory!

Last year, with so many new culinary pamphlets from the 19th and 20th century piling up around us, Special Collections decided to create a collection just for these little gems: The Culinary Pamphlet Collection, Ms2011-002. And we’ve featured one or two of them before (“Lunch in Wartime” and “Canned Meat…at the Beach!” for example). This week, we’re sharing three pamphlets from three different companies/institutions, all with a common theme: Victory!

First up, there’s the four-page “Special Edition: Your Wartime Food” pamphlet, c.1941-1945, from Kroger Grocery & Baker Co. (later Kroger Company). It includes a selection recipes using cheaper cuts of meat (aka “utility beef”) and/or stretching better cuts a little further. In addition the pages pictured, there are also instructions for basics like beef stew and pot roast, as well as sauerbraten, “American Chop Suey,” beef steak pie, and stuffed steak.

Cheese was a great source of protein under rationing, and even it could be stretched to help feed a family. The modern Kraft, Inc. has had a series of names over time (10 names changes since its early days as “Kraft Cheese Company” to be exact!). It is hardly surprising that they produced some useful pamphlets during World War II, including “Cheese Recipes for Wartime Meals: How to Make Your Cheese Go Further” in 1943. While the black and white images may not to the dishes justice, this small publication contains cheese recipes for roasts, casseroles, vegetables, egg dishes, strata, puddings, and sandwiches.

Lastly, for this week, we offer The Wartime Cookbook: 500 Recipes, Victory Substitutes and Economical Suggestions for Wartime Needs from 1942.  In addition to recipes, the booklet is filled with slogans, small photographs, logos, and explanations of what foods are available and why. There is also a good deal of nutritional information throughout.

There is a finding aid for the Culinary Pamphlet Collection, with a list of pamphlets available online. Just keep in mind, this collection is ALWAYS growing. From Jell-O to shredded wheat, from olive oil to shortening, and from waterless cookers to blender–the collection includes pamphlets and small publications from food companies/councils, appliance makers, insurance companies, and restaurants/hotels. They all offer different perspectives, some creative recipes, and a more than a fair share of colorful illustrations. It’s DEFINITELY worth a visit and a look!